Value Based IT Alignment using TOGAF (from ITIL Service Strategy to ISO 15288 System Engineering and Agile Standards)- Part I
How to enhance the ISO 15288 System & Software Engineering Processes using ITIL Services and being piloted by TOGAF 9.1 ?
Figure 1 - Value Based IT Alignment from Service Strategies to System Engineering and Agile Standards using TOGAF ADM
In order to create "Competitive Advantage", companies are looking for ways to add more value to their activities by aligning them to their customer outcomes and reducing cost of creating such values.
To do this, they need to align their "System Engineering Practices" and "Agile Software Development Processes" with Changing Strategies and "Business Values" they want to deliver to their customers.
TOGAF ADM helps to enable such an “architecture capability” by suggesting its Architecture Development Cycles to be executed at three layers respectively: strategy architecture, segment architecture and capability architecture to align System & Software Engineering Practices with changing service lifecycle processes.
In this alignment process, architecture cycles illustrated in Figure 1 play the following roles:
Strategy Architecture Cycle sets business alignment directions using ITIL Service Strategy and Continual Service Improvement stages.
Segment Architecture Cycles focus respectively on ITIL Service Design, Service Transition and Service Operation phases for each cycle being coordinated by the Strategy Architecture Cycle.
Finally, the Capability Architecture Cycles focus on ISO 15288 System & Software Engineering Practices that have to be aligned with the impacts of changing strategies on the previous ITIL Service Life Cycle processes.
A simplified version of the meta-model that supports this IT Alignment Process is provided below (figure 2).
It illustrates on the left how goals “drive” principles that “imply” requirements in discovering and assigning business and IT functions to deliver Capabilities.
The right part of the figure focuses on the orchestration of these functions using process groups of ITIL service lifecycle and ISO 15288 System & Software standard to deliver values to stakeholders. It also defines how these values delivered as part of Capability Increments may help in order to be used as part of the “Vision Statement” of Agile Methodologies.
Figure 2 – A simplified version of the meta-model to support execution of the Architecture Cycles - The "Strategy Service"process element has been renamed as "Service Strategy" in the following instantiation of this meta-model (figure 3).
For instance, in order to “align activities to customer outcomes” and “reducing engineering costs”, two principles namely "Customer centricity" and "Common use of Applications” may be first selected respectively as part of the “Preliminary” phase of the Strategy Architecture Cycle (illustrated at the top layer of Figure 1).
Thus, these principles have to be described with their requirement implications as part of phase A in order to provide assessment of their potential “influence” on other principles to be assigned to processes of the ITIL Service Strategy in phases B,C,D.
An example of instantiation of the meta-model for the goal “Reducing Cost of Systems and Software” is provided below. On the basis of “Common use of Application” principle, two requirements are discovered as implications: “Data produced… to be shared across the Enterprise” and“Enterprise-Wide Capabilities”.
In turn, these requirements help to discover two underlying principles such as “Data is Shared” and “Service Orientation” that are assigned to the “Business Service Strategy” function orchestrated by the “Service Strategy” process.
The latter process renames the "Strategy Service" building block of the meta-model (as indicated in the footing note of the previous example).
Figure 3 – A partial instantiation of the meta-model for the goal “Reduce Cost of Systems and Software” as part of the Strategy Architecture Cycle
In the second part of this article, we will explain how these principles and requirements as well as their underlying elements can affect processes of the Strategy, Design, Transition and Operation phases.
The third and last part will respectively focus on the overall impact analysis into the System & Software Engineering Processes to deliver “value” to appropriate stakeholders and on the establishment of a “value driven governance” toward Agile Methods.
Birol Berkem, Ph.D, GooBiz
(*) TOGAF (R) is a registered trademark of the Open Group.